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One of the health sports is rowing
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(一)Definition and classification

Rowing is a water sports, periodically is by sitting in a special rowing athletes, on the slide back and forth motion, swiping installed on vessel propeller (single double scull or), make the boat move forward through the water.

When an athlete pulls the oar, it produces a positive force (power) on the boat, and when the paddle pulls back to the oar, the athlete moves in the opposite direction (resistance), producing a negative force.

Methods or techniques used by the athletes must make the use of muscle groups and cultivate the coordinated movement of the supporting function of each joint, and maximize the direction of the force, the minimum limit reduced landed the direction of the force. This is to optimize each stroke as much as possible, and get the maximum possible speed in the 2000 meter boat race. In each stroke, the athlete will be able to perform the equivalent load of 100 per cent to the oar handle, and to row 210 to 250 OARS in the race.

The rowing competition is divided into men and men's light weight (72.5 kg for single). The average weight of a multi-person boat is 70kg, the maximum is 72.5kg, and the female and women are lightweight. The average weight of a multi-person boat is 57 kg, and the maximum is not more than 59 kg. There are 24 men and women in the world rowing championships, 14 men and women in the world youth rowing championships, and 14 men and women in the Olympic rowing competition. The Olympic Games are set below.:

Man: single sculls without rudder (M1 *), double sculls without rudder (M2 *), lightweight double sculls without rudder LM2 (x), four sculls coxless (M4 x), double single oar and rudder (M2), single oar coxless four (M4 -), lightweight single oar coxless four (LM4 -), single oar eight people with a pilot (M8 +)

Women: single sculls without rudder (W1 x), double sculls without rudder (W2 x), lightweight double sculls without rudder (LW2 x), four men without helmsman (W4 x), double single OARS without helmsman (W2-), eight OARS with helmsman (W8+)

In addition to the above Olympic Games, the women's four-person single oar and the women's weightless four sculls have no helmsman.

(二)Rowing race

The regular competition of rowing is carried out on the standard course of 2000 meters. At the start of the race, the boats were lined up at the starting line. After issuing the order, the boats rowed to the finish line as soon as possible, and the boat was the winner of the boat race.

Rowing competitions are usually carried out in natural waters and are often affected by the weather, even in the two groups before and after the competition. Therefore, rowing has no world record.

(三)Overview of rowing development.

The origin of rowing is considered to be simple boat race in the 18th century Europe, and modern rowing stems from a 1829 British famous Oxford and Cambridge in the first intercollegiate rowing on the river Thames. But was popular in Europe and the United States rowing seat is fixed, the appearance of the ship is looking flat, no crutch and thole, adapted to the technology based on the motion of the arms and upper to paddle. In 1846, the British set the oar on the boat, lengthening the length of the OARS, which greatly improved the oar effect. In 1847, they converted the outer keel of the fish scales to the inner keel of the skateboard, which greatly improved the speed and technical level of the boat. In 1857, American babcock invented the sliding seat, which allowed the athletes to give full play to the strength of their waist and legs. In 1882, the russians replaced the original closed OARS with movable OARS, and again increased the range of OARS. In the future, people continuously improved the boat type and various auxiliary devices. Once someone USES the fixed seat, under the thole wheels a boating equipment, it has the advantage of making contraction and stretch the legs, to reduce the oar ship caused by body centre of gravity is moving the rise and fall of fore and aft, the boat move forward more smoothly. The international rowing federation was established in Turin, Italy, in 1892. At the second Olympic Games in 1900, men's rowing was listed as a competition, and women's rowing was listed as a competition in the 21st Olympic Games in 1976. From the perspective of historical development, the leading countries in the world rowing are Germany, eastern European countries and the United States.

Rowing was introduced to China in 1913. At that time, the British set up the "rowing association" in Shanghai, and the boat appeared on the huangpu river. In the 1940s, the russians established a "water club" in Harbin. But these are only recreational activities for some foreigners, and there is no mass activity.

Rowing in our country was included in a sport, and in the mass of the people started after the founding of the state. In 1954, Harbin first launched the mass sports rowing. In November 1956, a rowing performance was held in the west lake of hangzhou. Shanghai, Harbin, dalian and hangzhou were sent to participate. In the autumn of 1957, there were four rowing championships in wuhan. In 1959, rowing was included in the first national games, with 19 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government and the people's liberation army of China.

In 1966, the Chinese rowing team won the championship of three rowing events (single, double and four) at the Asia new power movement. In 1973, China joined the international rowing federation. Since 1975, China has sent teams to the world championships.

At present, our country to carry out the rowing unit has expanded to the 22 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, the Chinese people's liberation army (PLA) and industry TiXie, has gradually formed the 123 tier, the novice. At the same time, rowing is gradually moving towards the society, relying on the society and serving the society, will create more good results. With the continuous development of China's economy and the improvement of people's living standards, rowing will become a good project for people's health and entertainment.

For many years, Chinese rowing athletes have made excellent achievements in the international competition. In the 1984-2004 Olympic Games, the rowing team won a silver and three bronze MEDALS. He has won several world championships in previous world championships. Chinese rowing is leading in Asia, winning most gold MEDALS at the Asian games. In the just-concluded world rowing championships in 2006, created the Chinese rowing best in the world competition, for men's lightweight single oar coxless four, the women's lightweight double sculls, 3 gold MEDALS of lightweight women's quadruple sculls, including men's lightweight single oar coxless four Chinese man rowing athletes is the gold medal in the first time in the history of the world, marked the rowing after the women's breakthrough, man first reached the world high level on individual projects, thus for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games China water army laid a solid foundation to achieve "a comprehensive breakthrough" goal.

二、Development trend and characteristics of rowing project.

(一)The current pattern of world rowing.

Three stand points through the 2006 World Cup, throughout the world competition, it is not hard to see, rowing towards multi-polarization direction at present, a total of 10 countries share the 14 Olympic sports boat integral top position. The following new features are presented.:

1、The traditional strong team, represented by Germany, remains.

Germany while only 2 in the integral first item number, a certain distance with the 4, but at the top three integral number, with 10 occupies more than 70% of all the 14 items of the seats, show strength in rowing project.

2、The commonwealth countries, represented by Britain, Australia and New Zealand, achieved astonishing results.

New Zealand did not take part in the Munich station, and the commonwealth still occupied three of the top eight spots in the event, when Australia took part in only one event at lucerne. Moreover, the UK surpassed Germany in the number of four points. In terms of the top three projects, although the UK is less than Germany, Australia and New Zealand have three seats, and the three countries add up to 12, which is more than 10 in Germany.

The data strongly suggested that represented by Britain, Australia, New Zealand, the commonwealth countries no matter in the overall strength or project on the core competitiveness, can compete with Germany, and have the advantage.

3、Non-european countries, represented by China and the United States, have made rapid progress.

Rowing has long been a traditional advantage for European countries and has long controlled almost all of the world's rowing RACES. But in recent years, the European countries in order to expand in the Olympic Games gold medal, started on this project with large power and energy to sporadic breakthrough, this is one of the most representative countries China and the United States.

Under the condition of China in the third race almost absent, still total score ranked fifth, and first in the Olympic project vessel occupy a integral and 1 points in the first three projects, the most important thing is to obtain the integral project reached nine, enough to show that on the rowing projects have strong overall strength, but the overall strength to be converted into gold or the core competencies of the medal is still need time.

The United States missed the second leg of the game and scored 32 points in the third leg, with a total of 38 points, in 12th place, with only two items (W1 x and W2-) scoring just six points. Since most projects are only take part in a race, so in the project will be affected by a lot, ranking score points despite seven projects, but only the W2 - on at the third stop in Germany for the project of integral second. However, it is not hard to see that the United States has a strong impact on women's public and lightweight single and double boat projects.

(二)Current changes and features.

1、The competition is fierce.

Since the change of rowing in 1992, the performance of each individual gold medal has not improved greatly, but the gap between the scores of 1-6 has become smaller and smaller, and the density of each place has increased, making it more difficult to achieve excellent results. The difference between the top three in the 2000 Olympic Games was only one second.

2、We will implement the strategy of key breakthrough.

At present, the world's leading teams generally adopt concentrated efforts to guarantee the key projects and personnel, and ensure the breakthrough of individual items. It avoids the phenomenon that the past is too long, the personnel are scattered, the key points are not prominent, and the fund guarantee is ineffective. In particular, some small countries, such as Romania, after the collapse of the eastern European countries, adopted such a strategy due to the underdeveloped economy, and achieved good results.

3、Professionalism and mobility of coaches.

In recent years, as the competition intensifies, the number of professional coaches in the world has increased rapidly and the flow of talents has become more frequent. The former east German coaches have the resources of Germany, Britain, France, the United States, Australia and Canada. They played an important role in the 2000 Olympic Games. For the Olympic Games in 2004, since the Sydney Olympics after a month, these countries again for the coaches of talent resources reorganization, some well-known professional coaches have been employed as their door. Coaches professionalization development and talent flow market in recent years, along with the wide application of network technology, greatly promote the technical exchange and advantages in the field of sports training, sports training level to further improve, make the game more competitive in the future.

4、The implementation of the Olympic qualification system has improved the strength of the preparation of the Olympic Games.

Implementation qualifying system from the 1996 Olympic Games, the Olympic Games last year's world championship qualifier, countries in the preparation of the Olympic Games a year ahead of time to change the past Olympic Games only annual training situation for a long time, now makes the preparation of the Olympic Games time earlier, longer, organization plan more closely, investment also increases. Even some powers also took years of concentrated training forms, scattered more than in the past, less concentrated condition change into focus more, less dispersion, years of concentrated advantage in the current situation in China has no advantage to speak of.

(三)The development trend

1、Under the existing equipment condition, the sports performance will improve slightly every year.

Since the 1992 Olympic Games, there has been relatively little change in training and competition equipment. Some Olympic projects have improved slightly, and some projects have maintained their original results. According to the international research results, the future Olympic Games will be slightly better than now.

2、The improvement of equipment will bring about the rapid improvement of athletic performance.

History proves that the improvement of every equipment will make a rapid increase in performance of equipment designed are rowing world powers have been working in the, once a breakthrough will greatly enhance the performance of existing. New equipment is available every year, but it has not been widely recognized, and may be a breakthrough in some areas in the next eight years.

3、The maturity and application of network technology improve the level of science and technology of training and competition.

Mature network technology and its application to speed up the new training methods, technology improvement, physiology, such as transmission and application of research results, shortens the time to master new technology, the gap between developed countries and least developed countries will shrink. It is reflected in the competition field, the competition is more intense, each place density increases, it is more difficult to win the excellent result. Only by rapidly mastering advanced training theory and adopting scientific and technological means, can the team that achieves innovation and breakthrough in training win the gold medal.

三、The guiding ideology of youth rowing athlete training.

Attaching importance to scientific selection; Emphasize on the comprehensive training of the youth class, strengthen the thought education, good psychological, physical quality, basic technical foundation; To ensure the systematic and scientific nature of the training. To achieve the goal of achievement. Highlight the following six aspects in your training.:

● Follow the physiological and psychological development rules of teenagers and combine the nature and characteristics of rowing project.

● Adhere to the "three from one" training principle.

● Strengthen the cultivation of individual ability.

● The coordinated development of physical fitness and technology.

● Based on aerobic training.

● Improve the effect of each oar.

四、The physiological basis of rowing.

(一)The power characteristics of a rowing boat.

1、The physiological mechanism of rowing competition.

The 2000-meter rowing competition consists of three parts or three stages: sailing or departure, en route (stage), end period or sprint stage.

Higher than commonly used in the start stage, the athlete on stage of oar frequency start, speed is higher than the average speed of the game, get and keep speed increase of energy comes from chemical bonds, stored in the muscle cells as well as the energy storage material. In the process, in the muscle cells energy matter decomposition don't get enough oxygen, therefore is called anaerobic (or inadequate oxygen supply) metabolism, and accompanied by a metabolic waste, namely the production of lactic acid, lactic acid accumulation can cause athletes muscle pain.

On the way, athletes use energy from aerobic oxidation, which stores energy. Adequate oxygen supply in the metabolic system causes more energy to decompose, so it is called aerobic metabolism. This stage lasts for 4-6 minutes until the end of the game.

It is worth noting that aerobic processes produce about 18 times as much energy as anaerobic metabolism, and do not produce fatigued waste - lactic acid. But anaerobic metabolism provides energy at a faster rate, keeping the muscles high and shrinking.

As in the departure stage, the oar will increase the paddle frequency during the sprint to improve the speed of the ship in the remaining 1-2 minutes.

This increase in the frequency of the OARS will increase the speed of the ship, which will increase the energy needs of the human body and reach a certain level, exceeding the maximum capacity of aerobic metabolism to provide energy. In this way, anaerobic metabolism reappears, and waste - lactic acid is produced again (see figure 1), and the amount of accumulation in the human body increases correspondingly.

FIG. 1 each stage of rowing competition.

In order to improve the athletes' ability to row, it is necessary to increase the athletes' ability to produce energy and to improve the athletes' ability to meet the needs of the competition. This is called endurance. But, to be exact, endurance is the ability of an athlete to perform a given exercise load over a period of time.

It is necessary to enhance the endurance of the athletes through proper training in order to enable the athletes to complete the greater exercise load (i.e. to enable the ship to travel on the course of the race in a short period of time).

2、Aerobic metabolism of rowing.

Proper training can improve athletes' endurance, including aerobic metabolism. The reason is that the aerobic power supply system provides 75 to 80 percent of the energy required for the boat race. Therefore, oxygen transport and oxygen use training is very important.

Oxygen transport system. Oxygen enters the muscle cells from the air and involves three systems: the respiratory system, the circulatory system and the muscle system.

The first system is the respiratory system. By breathing air (oxygenated) into the lungs, about 21 percent of the air is made up of oxygen. After the lungs receive air, oxygen in the air diffuses through the alveolar walls of the lungs to the blood.

The second system is the circulatory system. The blood that contains saturated oxygen is pumped from the lungs to the heart, where it pumps blood "out" to the place where oxygen is most needed, the muscles that are moving. As the blood travels through the circulatory system, the arteries that participate in transport become smaller and smaller, branching into numerous small arterioles, known as capillaries. The capillaries are small and surround the fibers (see figure 2).

The third system, the muscle system. During this phase, oxygen passes through the capillary wall into the muscle cells, where important oxygen transfer or diffusion activities are carried out. In muscle cells, oxygen enters the mitochondria, the energy plant of the muscle cell, and converts energy into energy during oxygen use.

Thus, oxygen USES three different physiological systems to enter muscle cells, where energy is generated through aerobic metabolism. The air that is breathed into the lungs is the main carrier of oxygen. Through the lungs, oxygen is transferred from the lungs to the blood, and the blood becomes the second carrier of oxygen. Oxygen-containing blood is sent to the heart and pumped through the arteries into the capillaries. When the capillaries transport blood to the muscle fibers, oxygen is transferred to the muscle cells. In cells, oxygen is used to generate energy. Now, we know the main components of these three systems and the possibility of improving their work efficiency through training (see figure 3).

The main components of oxygen transport. The first component is the lung. During exercise, a normal human lung is inhaled between 120 and 180 litres of air per minute. Excellent rowers take in more than 200 litres of air per minute. The air that people breathe contains about 21 percent of oxygen, which means that the exposed athletes can get 42 litres of oxygen per minute when doing a lot of exercise. It also indicates that there is enough oxygen to meet the metabolic needs of the body, which is not significantly altered by training.

The second component is the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, which is the amount of blood and red blood cells in the blood. Red blood cells carry oxygen through hemoglobin in the blood. Athletes who are trained usually have more total blood and more red blood cells than untrained athletes. Observation showed that endurance training increased the amount of blood in the resting time by 16 per cent, which was due to the increase in the amount of blood and red blood cells (see figure 4).

The third component is the heart, cardiac output is the heart in a minute the pump blood loss of the human body via the circulatory system, total is equal to every cardiac output multiplied by the heart rate, cardiac output can be increased through training.

Cardiac output can be increased from 5 litres per minute at rest to more than 40 litres per minute during vigorous exercise. The training of the athletes, the movement and the rest of the heart rate decreased, indicating that the output of each stroke increased.

As shown in figure 5, considering that the normal male output of the heart at the time of exercise is about 110ml, it is assumed that the heart rate is 200 beats per minute, resulting in 22 litres of blood ejection per minute. In the maximum intensity exercise, the output per beat of 160 ml (lightweight men) to 200ml (open class men) can be up to 32 to 40 litres per minute.

Since each 100ml of blood contains 15 grams of haemoglobin, each liter of blood can carry 200 ml of oxygen, so the blood can output 8 liters of oxygen to the muscle system every minute.

The fourth component is the capillary density, and each muscle fiber is wound by an elongated part of the capillary vessel. The increase in the number of capillaries that bind each part of the muscle fibers can transport more blood to the area, thereby increasing the amount of oxygen transported to the muscle.

Studies have shown that training increases the total number of functional capillaries that are wound around the muscle fibers, allowing the muscles to use more oxygen (see figure 6).

Another component of oxygen transport is the blood flow to the working muscles. During exercise, the blood flow to the working muscles increases, because the arteries that carry blood to the inactive area contract, and the arteries that carry blood to the area where the oxygen is needed are expanding. Studies have shown that training increases blood flow to the working muscle group.

Muscle cells themselves produce many adaptations to increase oxygen consumption. Endurance training showed that the operation mechanism of muscle cells was improved effectively.

Restrictions. The main components of oxygen transport have been discussed, but we have not considered the limiting factor as an equally important factor in the discussion of oxygen transport. The respiratory system transports oxygen to the circulatory system over oxygen in the blood. Therefore, it is not considered that lung is a limiting factor for the improvement of rower's performance.

Training can improve the function of the circulatory system and exert a strong influence on the physiological function of the athletes. In order to produce a training effect on the circulatory system, any form of exercise that causes the heart to bear the load can improve the oxygen transport capacity and oxygen uptake level.

In muscles, oxygen uptake and utilization are mainly used to convert energy into energy. Studies show that these two processes can be significantly improved through training, while also improving the physiological capacity of the body. Many exercise physiologists believe that the muscle system has great potential for improving aerobic metabolism. In order to produce the training effect of muscle cells on oxygen utilization, the training of athletes must be specific, that is, the long time and moderate load of special muscle groups. Below, we also link special training with related physiological systems to discuss.

As mentioned above, aerobic metabolism does not provide the full amount of energy required by the body during strenuous exercise. Below, we look at how other metabolic systems provide energy for the body during hypoxia.

3、The anaerobic metabolism of rowing.

Anaerobic metabolism. Although we have completed the discussion of aerobic metabolism, there is another type of energy that can provide 20-25% of the energy in the rowing race, which we call anaerobic metabolism.

Anaerobic metabolism is mainly used in the starting and final sprint stages of rowing competitions. It is worth noting that in the first few seconds of the race, the energy is provided by the chemical energy stored in the muscle cells. After the departure stage, the human body must rely on the anaerobic decomposition of glycogen to provide the energy required for the starting phase. In starting stage of the game and the final sprint phase, high intensity exercise need to use the anaerobic metabolism system in order to maintain the high speed of muscle contraction, and provide sufficient energy to meet the needs of the body of high energy (see figure 7).

The use of anaerobic metabolic systems to decompose energy materials produces waste called lactic acid. The accumulation of lactic acid causes fatigue and reduces the ability of the muscles to contract.

Training can improve athletes' ability to withstand lactic acid build-up and improve their ability to eliminate them. However, because the energy provided by aerobic system in rowing competition is more effective, the ratio is larger, so it is important to introduce aerobic metabolism.

(二)Adolescent physiological characteristics.

1、The characteristics of each system.

The characteristics of the nervous system: the characteristics of the adolescent nervous system are that the excitatory process is dominant and easy to diffuse, thus showing the characteristics of active, active and unfocused attention. This requires that we in the training, each activity continued time shoulds not be too long, shoulds not be too great strength, content and form to achieve diversification and vary over time, the duration of the training should be extended gradually. However, with the increase of age, the inhibition process gradually develops, and finally the excitement and inhibition achieve equilibrium.

The characteristics of the cardiovascular system: teenagers every cardiac output and the absolute value of output per minute (less than adults, but their relative value (in terms of per kilogram of body weight) to a people's congress, the smaller relative age. This ensures that the oxygen supply necessary for the body's metabolism is high during development. This characteristic shows that the young heart can adapt to the short period of intense training activities. At the same time, the athlete's heart are in development phase, when the strength training should reduce suffocating in action, as far as possible to avoid the intrathoracic pressure is too high, and make the premature myocardial thickening, and affect the growth of heart cavity.

The characteristics of the respiratory system: teenagers and delicate respiratory organs, respiratory tract mucous membrane is easy to damage, elastic fibers in the lung tissue is less, pulmonary interstitial, rich blood vessels, lung containing blood is more, the air content is less, less well development, thoracic small, vital capacity, smaller training activities mainly to increase pulmonary ventilation by accelerated breathing rate. Therefore, in the training of teaching should guide the youth to master the correct breathing method, breathing emphasize the extent of deep breath, not only by increasing the frequency of breathing, and pay attention to the coordinated with the frequency of the paddle, to promote the normal development of respiratory organs.

The characteristics of the muscular system: the strength of the flexor muscles of the youth is stronger than that of the extensor muscles. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the development of extensor muscles to maintain the balance between the extensor muscles and prevent the occurrence of "hump" deformity.

2、The periodical and sequential characteristics of physical development.

Periodical characteristics: the three stages of the boy's quality development. The first stage is 7-15 years old. For the rapid growth stage, the growth of all qualities of each quality at the age of 15 is over 80%. The second stage is between 16 and 20 years old, entering the stage of slow growth: the third stage is 21-25 years old, which is the peak of quality development in the whole life, and the development is stable. The four stages of girls' quality development. The first stage is 7-12 years old. For the rapid growth stage, the majority of the quality growth in the age of 12 is about 90%. The second stage is between the ages of 13 and 16, with a significant number of girls' quality development stagnating, and a few girls even declining. The third stage is 17-20 years old, and enters the slow growth stage: the fourth stage is 21-25 years old, and the quality development tends to be stable. Girls aged 13 to 16 years of quality development stagnation, may have a direct relationship with sexual development and sexual maturation.

Sequential characteristics: the boy generally starts with the speed, the speed endurance, the growth of the waist abdominal muscle strength, the second is the lower limb explosive force; The slower, the slowest growth is the arm muscle's static endurance. Girls are the same age as boys before the age of 12, with a significant lag in the strength of the abdominal muscles and arm muscles at the age of 12, or even stagnating or declining.

3、The physical quality develops sensitive period.

Physical quality development of sensitive period is because the human body growth and development has the fast slow, undulating characteristics, in different ages, all the qualities of different growth rate, the physical age is called sensitive period of fast growth. The sensitive period of development of all physical qualities is: 10-13 years old; Strength 13-17 years old; Explosive force 12-13 years old; Endurance 10 years, 13 years, 16 years old; Sensitive 13-14 years old; Flexible 11-13 years old.

五、Age group division, stage task requirement and load arrangement.

(一)Age group division

According to the physical and psychological development characteristics of adolescent children, this program is divided into two age groups, 13-15 and 16-18 years old, namely, the primary training stage and the intermediate training stage.

(二)Stage tasks and requirements.

1、Primary training stage


① Develop the interest and hobbies of rowing, improve the health level and promote the normal development and growth of the body.

② Cultivate the quality of discipline, unity, and courage to overcome difficulties.

③ Be prepared for comprehensive physical fitness.

④ Learn to swim, have self - saving ability, understand safety common sense and equipment proper use and maintenance.

⑤ Preliminary mastery of the correct basic skills of rowing.


① Comprehensive development coordination, flexibility, agility, speed, strength and endurance sports quality.

② Familiar with water, self - saving ability, and at least can swim more than 200 meters. Also understand safety knowledge.

③ Basic master of single sculls. Establish correct technical concept and develop balance ability.

2、Intermediate training stage


① To cultivate the career of rowing. Enhance cultural literacy, strengthen moral discipline education, cultivate good thinking style and training style.

② In rowing training system, give priority to with single sculls, correctly grasp and single oar paddle (left and right paddle) technology, establish the correct technology, improve the quality of the special performance and special, basic grasp game technology.

③ We will continue to improve our overall physical fitness level and focus on development and specific related physical fitness.

④ Master knowledge, skills and basic theories of land and water training.


① Comprehensive education, strict management through training, life, learning, culture, morality, discipline, love of the collective, hard-working outstanding young athletes.

② Highlight the training of a single boat. Technically maintain the sequence of the action, smooth and the stroke rhythm, pay attention to the effect of water stroke.

③ Maintain comprehensive physical fitness training, achieve the general and special combination. Strength training focuses on medium weight speed and endurance, and develops great power properly. Also be aware of flexibility and coordination of quality exercises.

④ Learn to use, maintain and adjust equipment properly.

⑤ Basic mastery and understanding of various training methods and means of rowing.

(三)Load arrangement

六、Rowing training

Rowing skills racing program of periodic under aerobic endurance is given priority to, the characteristics of its movement technique is to repeat the same action, only need to learn and master a cycle, can repeat this action for a long time. Every periodic motion is made up of different links, and repeated in the same order, oar in rowing OARS (water) according to mention - pull blade - turn by propeller (water), and back to the propeller four stages, each stage as part of the whole movement. In rowing, the oarsman repeats the four movements in turn, namely, after the previous action is completed, and then the next action is followed, so that the rowing cycle can be completed repeatedly.

The characteristics of its movement ability, and the sports ability of aerobic endurance project, want to hold the characteristics and process of aerobic training, can better exercise in training and competition levels, at the same time, also need to be in power and speed, endurance on the physical training of all-round development, to maximize the development of special aerobic endurance ability, finally achieve the success of the games.

(一)Training principles

The training principle is the reflection of objective laws of the training process. It is the summary and generalization of the general experience of training practice. It is the principle that must be followed in the organization and training. With the development of training practice, people's understanding of training law is deepened, and the training principle is constantly improving, enriching and improving. In the course of rowing training, mastering the reasonable training principle is the key to the training of the trainer. Follow the training principle to carry out training, which is beneficial to improve the training effect, and ensure the consistency of the training and the special achievement goal. In view of this, the coach must follow the scientific training principle in the development of rowing training plan and practice. Rowing training includes the following basic training principles.:

1、Active participation principle

Coaches and athletes should be actively involved in the development and implementation of training programs. This principle is more important for experienced athletes than for beginners. The reason is that the novice does not have the knowledge of training, but can only passively accept the coach's direct instruction. Coaches and athletes should work together to improve their training objectives when implementing short - and long-term training programs. Experienced athletes may be committed to constantly improving their training programs to help coaches ensure the quality of their training programs.

During each training phase, coaches and athletes should identify various training objectives and conduct regular tests to monitor the effectiveness of the training program. This will provide reference information for the training phase, as well as the adjustment of the training plan between phases and phases.

This active participation mechanism will provide athletes with training motivation, strengthen the binding force, and encourage athletes to pursue better performance in training.

2、Overall training principle

In the development of athletes, comprehensive physical training is an essential part. In fact, any exercise program, establishing a comprehensive physical training foundation is a prerequisite for special training. This is especially important for teenagers and beginners. Because in the development of rowing athletes, a solid physical and technical foundation is the inevitable requirement for further development of the future rowing training.

While in the process of the training of the athletes, always keep a certain percentage of the overall physical training program, but throughout the entire athletes sports career, at a certain stage of training, training, between phase and phase is rowing athletes plays the decisive role of the special training.

3、Special training principles.

In the career of the movement of athletes, they brought the rowing special training, the purpose of today, with the constant development of athletic sports, the rowing special training is necessary for the high level of performance. It is used in all aspects of training, and the number of special exercises for rowing is constantly increasing.

Although specialization is a complex process, special exercises can be divided into two forms. The first is those that are similar to the action structure (e.g., rowing dynamometer or water technique); The second is to use exercises similar to some of the action structures. These exercises achieve the purpose of individual or multiple muscle groups (e.g. strength training programs) in a specific, similar manner.

In this way, the training plan has become a very interesting challenge, considering both the short-term and long-term development of the athletes, and the reasonable combination of comprehensive training and special training.

4、Discrimination principle

In order to achieve the goal of individual training, it is necessary to carry out individualized training. Because each athlete's ability, athletic potential, learning characteristics and special requirements are different.

These differences will result in different individual abilities of the athletes, so a training program may be suitable for one athlete and not for another.

This point is especially important when designing a program for an adult or experienced athlete to train a beginner or young athlete.

Have both single-player and multiplayer boat rowing race project, it also poses challenges for training plan set, plans to consider both single and multi project specific training, and to consider short-term and long-term development goals, athletes, this ability is the real coach art, need the coaches have years of experience in sports training practice.

5、Diversity principle

Physical activity diversity brings two benefits, one is physical; The second is psychological.

The diversity of physical activity, especially in the early stages of training, increases the proportion of overall physical training, which may improve the best athletic ability of athletes' special training.

With the improvement of special training requirements, high quality training and repeated specialized training are required. This can make an athlete dull or mental fatigue.

Therefore, it is very important for coaches to adopt diversified training, maintain the interest of athletes and motivate them to achieve the short-term and long-term training goals.

6、Progressive principle

As the human body to adapt to a certain quantity and quality of practice, it also improved the sport ability of body, the athletes body adapted to the established after the exercise load, if not increase the training load, the body does not adapt to the new load, the body movement ability could not be further improved.

Most importantly, the training program must provide adequate training load to cause fatigue. In athletes, to restore and increase new sports load immediately, of course the increase of load in training plan must be step by step, so as to produce a high level of sports fitness and improve competitive ability.

7、System training principle

In the process of training programs to prepare, must develop a plan of a system, the plan should be based on the scientific nature and principles of training, and in the form of organized, regular training athletes.

A systematic training program can improve the quality of training, since such a program will provide a program for coaches and athletes to test, monitor and control the state of the game. A systematic training program can also provide a review or correction training mode for the athletes in the next stage of training and the entire sports career.

(二)The training load

1、Training load interpretation.

In the sense of practice, the training load is mainly composed of load and load intensity. The load is composed of total weight, total number, total number and total time. The load strength consists of seven factors: speed, height, distance, weight, difficulty, quality and density.

In a system of training plan, also made up of amount and intensity of training load, that is to say, after a period of adjustment, at the beginning of a new training cycle, with the great physiological load of exercise and the relatively low or moderate load training, sweeping physical training and enhance the endurance of athletes. With the training period, the training intensity gradually improved and the training quantity decreased. In this way, the special athletic ability needed for rowing will be developed, and the necessary skills will meet the training requirements.

2、The wave shape of the training load.

The wave characteristics of the training load, namely, the increase of load and intensity, and the decrease of alternating rise. Studies have shown that this approximate waveform load training is more effective than linear or continuous incremental loading. , in contrast to the continuous incremental load method, wavy feature requirements after increasing training load, immediately have a process to reduce load, during this period, the athletes body can restore and training load produces to adapt. This enables athletes to adapt continuously to increased training load. Last three training sessions, for example, training load is gradually increased, until the maximum load (50%, 75%, 100%), and then, a light-hearted strength training or complete rest, performance can achieve the best performance. This is applicable to the weekly training plan of more than 5 times a week. If the training period is less, the plan can be set as the next day training, the training load will gradually increase, and the weekend will reach the maximum. "Waves" certificate of training load change is applied to the training phase, this means that a week and another week of maximum load is different, have different wave curve which is formed by the training.

3、The load structure of rowing training.

Generally, rowing training is divided into six levels of load, and the load structure, training method, training effect and technical effect are shown in the table.

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